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The Business Case for Keystroke Dynamics in Multi-Factor Authentication
Username and password pairs as authentication factors are as weak as they are ubiquitous. They can be phished, stolen, discovered, and cracked in a number of ways. Use of a single factor of authentication is so weak that the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) is requiring that all online banking services adopt multi-factor authentication by the end of 2006. In light of these needs, a biometric method known as keystroke dynamics (or, keyboard or typing dynamics) is emerging as an effective way to strengthen user authentication. This special report provides scenarios that illustrate the application of keystroke dynamics. We then present a probability model that can be used to analyze the security benefits of multi-factor authentication. Finally, we present an economic analysis of the financial benefits of keystroke dynamics. (8 pp., 5 figs.) [Executive Summary]
Weak Security Allows Sales Reps to Defraud (July 2002)
Only weeks after WorldCom revealed that some of its top sales representatives had manipulated its antiquated incentive compensation system to defraud the company of millions of dollars, a survey of executives was conducted at the spring Synygy Incentive Compensation Conference, held in Phoenix in March 2002.